From High School to College Athletics: The Missing Link

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Have you ever wondered why some of the biggest, tallest, fastest high school athletes never even have a chance to play in college much less in the pros? Here are some statistics compiled by the NCAA:

• 3.3% of high school women basketball players compete in college
• 3.0% of high school men basketball players compete in college
• 5.7% of high school football players compete in college
• 5.5% of high school men soccer players compete in college
• 9.3% of high school women soccer players compete in college

Here is a common, and often overlooked reason, for not being able to continue as quoted by the head athletic trainer of the NHL’s Carolina Hurricanes:

“As I look at all the trends in sports medicine and how things are constantly changing to improve the athlete’s performance, one aspect stands alone as the most underrated attribute an athlete can develop. Without question, in my 30 years as a physical therapist, athletic trainer and strength coach, I have found that we underestimate the importance of vision.

To realize just how important vision is, try testing athletes’ muscles with the athletes looking at their own muscle and then again with them looking away. They will immediately notice an improvement in strength. Another quick test is to have athletes evaluate their vertical jump with a downward gaze versus an upward gaze. The upward gaze adds a minimum of two inches to their vertical height. The old adage that the eyes drive the body is very appropriate for these two tests.

The subject of eyes is in every aspect of my sports medicine program. It starts at the NHL combine where results of vision scores are taken under serious consideration during the NHL Draft. It has been shown that the single-best fitness score that correlates to the chance of making the NHL are results from the combine vision tests. During preseason testing, eye scores are again scrutinized by management and coaching staff. It is almost always a certainty that our best goaltenders and best face-off athletes score the highest.

Another area in which we utilize eye scores is when making sure an athlete’s vision is back to normal after suffering a concussion. I believe this is a critical area to which we often don’t devote enough attention. We generally look at many other signs and symptoms but fall short when it comes to making sure the vision is back to normal. This, then, may put the athlete in harm’s way and at risk of another injury or exacerbating the present symptoms, thus setting back the athlete.”

The eye scores that he is referring to involve more than just whether the athlete needs contacts or glasses to see 20/20 or better. Don’t let vision hold you or your athlete back from achieving his/her best. Be evaluated. We can help improve your vision for sports. We have already done so for a number of athletes.

For more information, contact Dr. Edward Fong and Bright Eye Care & Vision Development.

References available upon request.

Medical Disclaimer. The information on this site is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. All content, including text, graphics, images and information, contained on or available through this website is for general information purposes only.

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Online Eyeglasses

Sugar Land Optometrist Eye Doctor Exam Blurry Vision Online Glasses

According to a study conducted by The Vision Council, the Optical Laboratories Association and the American Optometric Association:

• 1 in 4 people who order glasses online WILL NOT even receive their order
• 1 out of every 2 glasses ordered online will have an INCORRECT PRESCRIPTION or SAFETY CONCERNS

In the study, 200 pairs of eyeglasses – adult’s and children’s – were ordered from 10 of the most popular online vendors. Various frame styles, materials, prescriptions and lens styles were ordered. The study then inspected sphere power, cylinder power, axis, add power, pupillary distance, center thickness and impact resistance.

For more information, contact Dr. Edward Fong and Bright Eye Care & Vision Development.

References available upon request.

Medical Disclaimer. The information on this site is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. All content, including text, graphics, images and information, contained on or available through this website is for general information purposes only.

ADHD and Eye Movements

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Improving eye movements has been shown to improve ADHD symptoms. In a clinical study involving children between the ages of 8 and 13 years, therapy to improve eye movements resulted in improved ADHD symptoms. Parent-reported scores on the K-ARS (Korea ADHD Rating Scale) dropped from an average of 23.25 before therapy to an average of 17.13 after therapy. A score of ≥ 19 on the K-ARS diagnoses symptomatic ADHD.

If your child is suspected of having ADHD, treating any underlying eye movement deficit can improve their symptoms, quality of life and academic progress. For more information, please contact Dr. Edward Fong and Bright Eye Care & Vision Development.

References available upon request.

Medical Disclaimer. The information on this site is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. All content, including text, graphics, images and information, contained on or available through this website is for general information purposes only.

Keeping an Eye on ADHD

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Eye movements have been shown to be an accurate, objective way to diagnose ADHD in children. In a recently published study, eye movement testing was able to diagnose ADHD accurately in approximately 96% of children.

Traditionally, there has not been a single objective test to diagnose ADHD. Rather, ADHD has been diagnosed through questionnaires and symptoms criteria set forth by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. These questionnaires have shown an accuracy of approximately 78%.

If your child is suspected of having ADHD, research and clinical experience indicate that thoroughly evaluating their eye movements is wise. Doing so can help confirm diagnosis. In addition, improving eye movements has been shown to improve ADHD symptoms without the use of medications.

For more information, contact Dr. Edward Fong and Bright Eye Care & Vision Development.

References available upon request.

Medical Disclaimer. The information on this site is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. All content, including text, graphics, images and information, contained on or available through this website is for general information purposes only.

Dyslexia

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Reading requires a complex array of skills to work in concert. When one or a combination of these processes do not work in harmony, then reading becomes a struggle. Eye movements are an important component in reading – both in dyslexics and non-dyslexics.

Clinical studies indicate that up to 70% of dyslexics have significantly worse eye movements than their normally-reading counterparts. Research also shows that eye movements can be improved through training. One study showed that 80% of its dyslexic subjects improved their eye movements by the end of the study.

Even more excitingly, these studies show that improvements in eye movements in dyslexics can transfer to improvements in reading. In one study, dyslexics showed a 50% decrease in reading errors after targeted eye movement training.

Of course, eye movements are not the only factor contributing to reading struggles. However, improving one of the contributing factors may go a long way in helping students who struggle with reading.

For more information, contact Dr. Edward Fong and Bright Eye Care & Vision Development.

References:

Seassau M, Gerard CL, Bui-Quoc E, Bucci MP. Binocular saccade coordination
in reading and visual search: a developmental study in typical reader and
dyslexic children. Front Integr Neurosci 2014;8:85.

Tiadi A, Gerard CL, Peyre H, Bui-Quoc E, et al. Immaturity of visual fixations
in dyslexic children. Front Hum Neurosci 2016;10:58.

Bucci MP, Nassibi N, Gerard CL, Bui-Quoc E. Immaturity of the oculomotor
saccade and vergence interaction in dyslexic children: evidence from a reading
and visual search study. PLoS One 2012;7(3):e33458.

Fischer B, Hartnegg K. Effects of visual training on saccade control in dyslexia.
Perception 2000;29(5):531-42.

Fischer B, Hartnegg K. Saccade control in dyslexia: development, deficits, training and transfer to reading. Optom Vis Dev 2008;39(4):181-90.

Medical Disclaimer. The information on this site is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. All content, including text, graphics, images and information, contained on or available through this website is for general information purposes only.

Autism and the Need for Glasses

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Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder see and understand the world differently according to research studies and clinical experience. People with ASD can have unique vision disorders that affect the way that they communicate and interact with others and their environment. Over the next week or two, we will be highlighting some of those differences.

According to research studies, children with ASD are 3X’s more likely to have significant astigmatism. Studies also indicate that up to 44% of children with ASD have a significant spectacle prescription – either myopia, hyperopia and/or astigmatism. If left untreated, these entities can affect how a child interacts socially, learns and physically moves in his/her environment. As with other aspects of ASD, early intervention can help maximize quality of life.

For more information, please contact Dr. Edward Fong and Bright Eye Care & Vision Development.

References:

Scharre JE, Creedon MP. Assessment of visual function in autistic children. Optom Vis Sci 1992;69: 433–439.

Ezegwui IR, Lawrence L, Aghaji AE et al. Refractive errors in children with autism in
a developing country. Niger J Clin Pract 2014; 17:467–470.

Anketell PM, Saunders KJ, Gallagher S et al. Profile of refractive errors in European
Caucasian children with autistic spectrum disorder; increased prevalence and magnitude of astigmatism. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2016; 36:395–403.

Medical Disclaimer. The information on this site is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. All content, including text, graphics, images and information, contained on or available through this website is for general information purposes only.

Amblyopia Affects Reading

Amblyopia Doctor Sugar Land Eye Exam Optometrist Missouri City Rosenberg Richmond TX

  • Approximately 1-2 children in every classroom will suffer from amblyopia
  • Amblyopia is the most common one-eyed vision impairment in children
  • Amblyopia slows down reading speed

Reading is heavily reliant on a person’s vision. The parts of vision that are important in reading include eyesight as well as other visual skills such as eye coordination, eye focusing and fine eye movements. Clinical studies show that children with amblyopia read approximately 25% slower than their non-amblyopic counterparts. These studies involve “normally-reading” students rather than those diagnosed with a reading disability. Reading speed affects fluency, and fluency affects comprehension.

Amblyopia is the inability to see 20/20 out of each eye even with optical correction despite the absence of eye disease. Differentiating children who are actually amblyopic versus those who would be able to see 20/20 with a prescription is important. The prognosis for amblyopia is good if it is detected early enough, diagnosed properly and subsequently treated appropriately.

For more information, please contact Dr. Edward Fong and Bright Eye Care & Vision Development.

References:

R. Kelly, Krista & Jost, Reed & De La Cruz, Angie & Dao, Lori & L. Beauchamp, Cynthia & Stager, David & Birch, Eileen. (2017). Slow reading in children with anisometropic amblyopia is associated with gaze instability and increased saccades. J AAPOS 21. e10. 10.1016/j.jaapos.2017.07.028.

Medical Disclaimer. The information on this site is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. All content, including text, graphics, images and information, contained on or available through this website is for general information purposes only.

More Allergies!

Itchy Red Watery Eyes Sugar Land TX Eye Doctor Exam Optometrist

There are four categories of eye allergies. Treatment is dependent on proper identification. The conjunctiva, which is the white part of the eye and the underside of the eyelid, is a fantastic place to help identify allergies. Eye allergies, according to clinical studies, are under-diagnosed and can affect a person’s ability to engage in various activities including school, work and recreation. Proper and quick treatment can alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life.

For more information, contact Dr. Edward Fong and Bright Eye Care & Vision Development.

References:

Singh K, Axelrod S, Bielory L. The epidemiology of ocular and nasal allergy in the United States, 1988-1994. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126:778-783. Abstract

Kubaisi B, Samra KA, Syeda S, Schmidt A, Foster CS. Ocular allergy: an updated review. J Allergy Immunol. 2017;1:002.

Kay AB. Allergy and allergic diseases. First of two parts. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:30-37. Abstract

Ono SJ, Abelson MB. Allergic conjunctivitis update on pathophysiology and prospects for future treatment. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;115:118-122. Abstract

Abelson MB, Welch DL. An evaluation of onset and duration of action of patanol (olopatadine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution 0.1%) compared to Claritin (loratadine 10 mg) tablets in acute allergic conjunctivitis in the conjunctival allergen challenge model. Acta Ophthalmol Scand Suppl. 2000;(230):60-63.

Crampton HJ. Comparison of ketotifen fumarate ophthalmic solution alone, desloratadine alone, and their combination for inhibition of the signs and symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in the conjunctival allergen challenge model: a double-masked, placebo- and active-controlled trial. Clin Ther. 2003;25:1975-1987. Abstract

Ousler GW 3rd, Workman DA, Torkildsen GL. An open-label, investigator-masked, crossover study of the ocular drying effects of two antihistamines, topical epinastine and systemic loratadine, in adult volunteers with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. Clin Ther. 2007;29:611-616. Abstract

Kari O, Saari KM. Diagnostics and new developments in the treatment of ocular allergies. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2012;12:232-239. Abstract

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Gateway to health communication & social marketing practice. Allergies. Updated September 15, 2017. https://www.cdc.gov/healthcommunication/ToolsTemplates/EntertainmentEd/Tips/Allergies.html Accessed November 14, 2017.

American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology. Allergic rhinitis. http://acaai.org/allergies/types/hay-fever-rhinitis Accessed November 20, 2017.

Friedlaender MH. Conjunctivitis of allergic origin: clinical presentation and differential diagnosis. Surv Ophthalmol. 1993;38(Suppl):105-114. Abstract

Pitt AD, Smith AF, Lindsell L, Voon LW, Rose PW, Bron AJ. Economic and quality-of-life impact of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis in Oxfordshire. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2004;11:17-33. Abstract

Medical Disclaimer. The information on this site is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. All content, including text, graphics, images and information, contained on or available through this website is for general information purposes only.

Eye Allergies – Scratch, Scratch, Scratch

Eye Allergy Conjunctivitis Red Eye Itchy Eye Sugar Land Doctor Treatment What Causes Optometrist

40%-80% of allergy sufferers have symptoms involving the eye. In some instances, ocular symptoms are the only indication of allergies. However, only 10% of people who have ocular symptoms seek professional help. The majority of people either just suffer through the symptoms or try oral allergy medications. Randomized clinical trials, however, show that prescription topical medications are superior in relieving symptoms and preventing chronic inflammation due to ocular allergies. In addition, oral medications can adversely affect the eye’s surface thereby making symptoms even worse.

For more information, contact Dr. Edward Fong and Bright Eye Care & Vision Development.

References:

Singh K, Axelrod S, Bielory L. The epidemiology of ocular and nasal allergy in the United States, 1988-1994. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126:778-783. Abstract

Kubaisi B, Samra KA, Syeda S, Schmidt A, Foster CS. Ocular allergy: an updated review. J Allergy Immunol. 2017;1:002.

Kay AB. Allergy and allergic diseases. First of two parts. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:30-37. Abstract

Ono SJ, Abelson MB. Allergic conjunctivitis update on pathophysiology and prospects for future treatment. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;115:118-122. Abstract

Abelson MB, Welch DL. An evaluation of onset and duration of action of patanol (olopatadine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution 0.1%) compared to Claritin (loratadine 10 mg) tablets in acute allergic conjunctivitis in the conjunctival allergen challenge model. Acta Ophthalmol Scand Suppl. 2000;(230):60-63.

Crampton HJ. Comparison of ketotifen fumarate ophthalmic solution alone, desloratadine alone, and their combination for inhibition of the signs and symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in the conjunctival allergen challenge model: a double-masked, placebo- and active-controlled trial. Clin Ther. 2003;25:1975-1987. Abstract

Ousler GW 3rd, Workman DA, Torkildsen GL. An open-label, investigator-masked, crossover study of the ocular drying effects of two antihistamines, topical epinastine and systemic loratadine, in adult volunteers with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. Clin Ther. 2007;29:611-616. Abstract

Kari O, Saari KM. Diagnostics and new developments in the treatment of ocular allergies. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2012;12:232-239. Abstract

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Gateway to health communication & social marketing practice. Allergies. Updated September 15, 2017. https://www.cdc.gov/healthcommunication/ToolsTemplates/EntertainmentEd/Tips/Allergies.html Accessed November 14, 2017.

American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology. Allergic rhinitis. http://acaai.org/allergies/types/hay-fever-rhinitis Accessed November 20, 2017.

Friedlaender MH. Conjunctivitis of allergic origin: clinical presentation and differential diagnosis. Surv Ophthalmol. 1993;38(Suppl):105-114. Abstract

Pitt AD, Smith AF, Lindsell L, Voon LW, Rose PW, Bron AJ. Economic and quality-of-life impact of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis in Oxfordshire. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2004;11:17-33. Abstract

Medical Disclaimer. The information on this site is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. All content, including text, graphics, images and information, contained on or available through this website is for general information purposes only.

Why does my vision change?

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Have you ever wondered why your vision changes from year-to-year or month-to-month or even day-to-day?  The term “vision” includes a wide spectrum of visual skills, and for this article, we will concentrate on two inter-related aspects – eyesight and prescription.  The references for this information are listed at the end of the article for your review.

According to research studies and clinical observation, the following can cause temporary or longer-lasting changes in a person’s visual acuity and/or prescription.  Not everyone who experiences one or more of the following will experience a vision change, but vision changes have been observed in enough of these situations to be aware of its potential effects:

  1. Diurnal changes in corneal curvature
  2. Menstrual cycle
  3. Stress hormones
  4. Diabetes
  5. Cataracts
  6. Medications
  7. Dry Eyes
  8. Pregnancy
  9. Increasing axial length
  10. Muscle spasms

The curve of the cornea changes during the day.  Clinical studies show that a person’s cornea can change as much 0.83 diopters.  This would effectively mean that how you see out of the same pair of glasses could go from 20/20 to approximately 20/40 just from normal daily changes in your corneal shape.  To help you better understand how this works, think about LASIK.  This refractive surgery procedure changes your prescription by permanently altering the shape of your cornea through lasers.  If you flatten the cornea, then you would change the prescription a certain way.  Alternatively, if you steepen the cornea, you would change the prescription another way.  Similarly, normal changes in corneal shape during the day can alter your prescription and how you see.

Changes in the cornea have also been observed during the menstrual cycle.  Clinical studies reveal that the curvature of the cornea steepens in the early phase while flattening during ovulation.   The thickness of the cornea changes too during the menstrual cycle.  The cornea thickens at ovulation and then thins out afterwards.  Changes in curvature, as discussed earlier, and changes in thickness will affect your prescription and acuity.  This is why some people may notice variations in acuity and prescription on a monthly basis even though they are wearing the same prescription.

Stress can affect many aspects of a person’s health including his/her vision.  In response to stress, your body releases many different hormones including cortisols, catecholamines, vasopressin, gonadotropins and potentially more.  A number of these hormones will affect the function and physiology of your eyes and visual system.  That discussion would be too detailed for this forum, but this is what it effectively means: If you’ve been stressed out all day and then visit the doctor, your prescription may be different once your stress has subsided and vice versa.

Changes in blood sugar levels can cause changes in vision and prescription.  Sugar can be trapped in the crystalline lens of the eye thereby causing it to swell.  This swelling will change a person’s prescription.  Alternatively, when a person’s sugar levels decrease, the crystalline lens will release the trapped sugars.  The prescription again will change because the shape of the crystalline lens has changed.  So, if you have diabetes, you can expect to occasionally experience changes in visual acuity and prescription as your blood sugar levels fluctuate.

Cataracts alter how light passes through the front of your eye to the back.  This pathway change will affect your prescription in different ways depending on what type of cataract(s) that you have.

Medications can change a person’s prescription in one of three ways: 1) spasm of the muscle located towards the front of the eye called the ciliary muscle, 2) retention of fluid in the crystalline lens or 3) swelling of the ciliary processes towards the front of the eye.  The list of medications that can cause changes to your prescription and visual acuity is too lengthy to list in this forum.

Dry eyes can cause changes in prescription and/or fluctuations in visual acuity because of this condition’s effect on the front surface of the eye.  The cornea plays an important role in focusing light to the proper place in the back of the eye.  As a matter of fact, the cornea accounts for 65-75 percent of the eye’s prescription.  Consequently, changes to the cornea due to dry eye can have a profound effect on visual acuity and/or prescription.

Changes in prescription seen in pregnancy can be temporary or long-lasting.  The hormones that are released during pregnancy can change corneal thickness, corneal curvature, how the crystalline lens transmits light to the back of the eye and how the front eye muscles focus light.  Some women experience changes in myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness) or astigmatism.  There has even been a published case in which one woman experienced an increase in myopia during the first trimester only to experience a swing to hyperopia in her second and third trimester.

The length of the eyeball is known as axial length.  Increasing axial length is a common reason for changes in prescription seen in children up to the age of twenty-two years.  Clinical studies seem to indicate that multiple factors working in concert result in changes to axial length rather than just one component being the culprit.  Every one millimeter change equates to a three diopter change in prescription.

Spasms of the ciliary muscle will change the shape of the crystalline lens.  This change in shape will result in changes in prescription and visual acuity.  These spasms can be temporary or longer-lasting in different individuals.  Different medications as well as inefficient focusing visual systems can cause these spasms of the ciliary muscle.  This can cause transient changes in how you see through your glasses or contacts, or it can cause your prescription to change from one doctor visit to another.

For more information, please contact Dr. Edward Fong and Bright Eye Care & Vision Development.

 

References:

  1. Ranabir S and Reetu K. Stress and hormones. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jan-Mar; 15(1): 18–22.
  2. Omoti AE, Waziri-Erameh JM, Okeigbemen VW. A review of the changes in the ophthalmic and visual system in pregnancy. Afr J Reprod Health. 2008 Dec;12(3):185-96.
  3. Ekpenyong BN, Aruotu NA, Uzodike EB, Njoku CG. Clinical Investigations and Management of Refractive Changes in Pregnancy: A Case Report. Afr J Reprod Health. 2015 Dec;19(4):107-17.
  4. Sunness JS. The pregnant woman’s eye. Surv Ophthalmol. 1988 Jan-Feb;32(4):219-38.
  5. Eisner A, Burke SN, Toomey MD. Visual sensitivity across the menstrual cycle. Vis Neurosci. 2004 Jul-Aug;21(4):513-31.
  6. Oliver KM, Walsh G, Tomlinson A, McFadyen A, Hemenger RP. Effect of the menstrual cycle on corneal curvature. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1996 Nov;16(6):467-73.
  7. Kiely PM, Carney LG, Smith G. Menstrual cycle variations of corneal topography and thickness. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1983 Oct;60(10):822-9.
  8. Soni PS. Effects of oral contraceptive steroids on the thickness of human cornea. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1980 Nov;57(11):825-34.
  9. K Pesudovs, D B Elliott. Refractive error changes in cortical, nuclear, and posterior subcapsular cataracts. Br J Ophthalmol 2003;87:964–967.
  10. Handa T, Mukuno K, Niida T, Uozato H, Tanaka S, Shimizu K. Diurnal variation of human corneal curvature in young adults. J Refract Surg. 2002 Jan-Feb;18(1):58-62.
  11. Read SA, Collins MJ. Diurnal variation of corneal shape and thickness. Optom Vis Sci. 2009 Mar;86(3):170-80.
  12. Yasuda A, Yamaguchi T, Ohkoshi K. Changes in corneal curvature in accommodation. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2003 Jul;29(7):1297-301.
  13. Benjamin, WJ. Borish’s clinical refraction 2nd edition. Butterworth-Heinemann, 2007. Print.

Medical Disclaimer. The information on this site is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. All content, including text, graphics, images and information, contained on or available through this website is for general information purposes only.